Human rights are inalienable. They should not be deleted, except in certain situations and according to due procedural guarantees. For example, the right to liberty may be restricted if a court of law rules that a person is guilty of having committed a crime.

Human rights are equal and non-discriminatory: Non-discrimination is a transversal principle in international human rights law. It is present in all the main human rights treaties and constitutes the central theme of some international conventions such as the International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination and the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women.

The principle applies to everyone in relation to all human rights and freedoms, and prohibits discrimination based on a non-exhaustive list of categories such as sex, race, color, and so on. The principle of non-discrimination is complemented by the principle of equality, as stipulated in Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.”

Human rights include both rights and obligations. States assume the obligations and duties, under international law, to respect, protect and fulfill human rights. The obligation to respect them means that States must refrain from interfering with or limiting the enjoyment of human rights. The obligation to protect them requires States to prevent human rights abuses against individuals and groups. The obligation to fulfill them means that States must adopt positive measures to facilitate the enjoyment of basic human rights. At the individual level, just as we must uphold our human rights, we must also respect the human rights of others.

The application of human rights to which all authorities are bound is governed by the principles of universality, interdependence, indivisibility and progressiveness.